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YoY Year-over-Year: Definition, Formula, and Examples

what is yoy

In addition, another important consideration is that growth inevitably slows down eventually for all companies. On that note, it would be inaccurate to assume that the current year was necessarily “worse” than the prior year without a deeper dive analysis.

Ultimately, a “good” YOY growth rate should be viewed in the context of the company’s specific circumstances and its ability to maintain sustainable and profitable expansion. This means that the company’s revenue increased by 25% from the previous year (2022) to the current year (2023). Common YOY comparisons include annual and quarterly as well as monthly performance.


It’s also common to compare quarterly financials on a YoY basis – as in, whether financials improved or worsened compared to the same quarter a year earlier. An excellent example of this is Meta’s (formerly Facebook) 2021 financial highlights from its investor page. The statement shows the year-over-year changes for a three-month period from the end of 2021 and the period December 2020 to December 2021. Using a YoY growth calculator or a traditional calculator, divide the value for your selected time period of the current year by the value for the same time period of the previous year. To do this successfully and benchmark your progress, the two periods you’re looking to work with should be directly comparable. These timeframes don’t necessarily have to equate to a whole financial year—they simply have to mirror one another.

If you were to compare a retailer’s Q3 and Q4 sales, you might think that the company grew a lot in Q4. But this quarter includes the holidays, which tend to lead to a lot of sales each year. Another instance where year over year growth calculations come into play is when you’re looking at how your direct competitors are performing. If you want to know how your company is performing against general industry standards, calculating YoY growth within your market research dashboard is a useful exercise.

On the other hand, companies that have declining revenue and earnings tend to see significant reductions in their stock prices. Another company had $50 million in earnings in the fourth quarter of 2018, but they had $100 million in earnings in the fourth quarter of 2017. Here we’re going to look at the concept of YoY and consider how you can use this essential metric to your business-boosting advantage. YoY growth is an effective means of measuring your ongoing progress and making sure your business is moving in the right direction.

what is yoy

Year to year change analysis will give the tools, as well as the business intelligence (BI), to identify actual dips in progress or performance and take strategic measures to get back on track. For example, seasonality (how certain seasons affect revenues) is not accounted for in a YoY analysis. Businesses located in holiday destinations such as ski resorts, hotels, and restaurants suffer from high seasonality, which should be accounted for in financial reports.

Revenue and EBIT Growth Rate Assumptions

But a really bad month for the business could also be overlooked if only year-over-year measurements are used. Net income, revenue, and sales are frequently quoted as a year-over-year measure and can be found on a company’s annual and quarterly financial statements. By finding your industry’s YoY growth benchmark and calculating your own over a set period, it’s possible to discover where you sit within the market in terms of progress. Knowing this information will give you the strategic direction you need for further growth.

Thousands of people have transformed the way they plan their business through our ground-breaking financial forecasting software. Furthermore, cyclical patterns become apparent if the analysis with historical results is inclusive of a minimum of one full economic cycle. We’ll now move on to a modeling exercise, which you can access by filling out the form below. For example, suppose the net operating income (NOI) of a commercial real estate property investment has grown from $25 million in Year 0 to $30 million in Year 1. This would give you the percent change in GDP from 2022 to 2021, or the year-over-year growth in GDP.

  1. Despite decreasing YOY earnings, the company’s solid presence and responsiveness to consumer consumption trends meant that Kellogg’s overall outlook remained favorable.
  2. The company also revealed plans to reorganize its North America and Asia-Pacific segments, removing several divisions from the former and reorganizing the latter into Kellogg Asia, Middle East, and Africa.
  3. If you’re looking at refreshing your marketing campaigns and communications, for example, you can calculate your year over year growth to visually map trends or patterns over a certain timeframe.

If you can map out your growth rates visually, you will be able to dig deeper into the data and uncover trends or fluctuations that will give you greater context on your progress or performance. The YoY approach may also be useful in analyzing monthly revenue growth, especially when the sources of revenue are cyclical. This allows an apples-to-apples comparison of revenue instead of comparing revenue month-over-month where there may be large seasonal changes. Trend analysis involves examining data over multiple periods to identify patterns and long-term changes. It can be used with various timeframes, such as quarterly, monthly, or even weekly data. Overall, YOY comparisons provide valuable insights into the trends and changes that have occurred over a specific period, helping businesses and individuals make informed decisions based on historical data.

However, comparing fourth quarter data of the current to the previous year’s fourth quarter results will provide more accurate and actionable insights. It provides a more frequent snapshot of changes and can be useful for businesses with significant seasonal variations or for assessing short-term trends. Overall, YOY analysis is a valuable tool for businesses to gain meaningful insights into their performance, track progress, make strategic decisions, and plan for the future. It serves as an important part of the broader data analysis toolkit for businesses of all sizes and across various industries.

Year over Year Analysis (YoY) Template

For example, in the first quarter of 2021, the Coca-Cola corporation reported a 5% increase in net revenues over the first quarter of the previous year. By comparing the same months in different years, it is possible to draw accurate comparisons despite the seasonal nature of consumer behavior. Investors like to examine YOY performance to see how performance changes across time. Year-over-year (YOY)—sometimes referred to as year-on-year—is a frequently used financial comparison for looking at two or more measurable events on an annualized basis. Observing YOY performance allows for gauging if a company’s financial performance is improving, static, or worsening.

To properly quantify a company’s performance, it makes sense to compare revenue and profits YOY. Suppose we’re analyzing the growth profile of a company that generated $100 million in revenue and $25 million in operating income (EBIT) in the trailing twelve months. Other business metrics or economic data will be necessary to explain why a company is growing or slowing down.

Another issue with year-over-year calculations is that they can’t fully explain the details behind economic or business growth. Year-over-year measures reveal trends, but they don’t provide enough information to explain why these trends are occurring. Many government agencies report economic data using year-over-year calculations to explain economic performance over the past year. Year-over-year calculations are easy to interpret, allowing for easy comparison over time.

The choice of method depends on the specific objectives of the analysis and the nature of the data being compared. Each alternative approach has its advantages and limitations, and businesses may use a combination of these methods to gain comprehensive insights into their performance and trends. Once we perform the same process for revenue in all forecasted periods, as well as for EBIT, the next part of our modeling exercise is to calculate the YoY growth rate. Looking at a quarter’s financials compared to the same quarter a year earlier is very useful because it helps eliminate fluctuations in the numbers due to seasonality.

Knowing this information can lead to significant cost savings by shutting down operations in the off-season. On the other hand, for smaller or newer companies, especially those in emerging industries or startups, higher YOY growth rates are often expected. Growth rates of 20% to 50% or even higher might be considered favorable for such companies as they try to gain market share and establish themselves.

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